Vaccine development and Production
Vaccine development involves a combination of public and private and it is a long and complicated process which lasts for around 10- 15 years. Not all vaccines that are designed gets licensed only tiny percentage of candidate vaccines are licensed. This makes the vaccine research and development costs higher. Vaccines are first designed in laboratories and assays are made with animals before they are tested with humans. The vaccine production cycle is quite different from a pharmaceutical product development since vaccines are biological products made from microorganisms. The challenging factors which makes the vaccine development little complicated includes the identification of suitable antigens, delivery methods which are acceptable, adjuvants, difficulties in manufacturing.